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Discussion Starter · #301 ·
V-Block setup Clamped securely

The setup will reveal the accuracy. So far, all that I read or heard of were heavy weighted v-blocks. The surfaces that they rest on are rarely if ever true, so I don't know how that works.

In the picture below you can see that I am using a massive 80 lb heavy weight i-beam sitting on top of a 17x29 kitchen island. By the way that kitchen island was the best gift ever for my home shop. The i-beam is overkill for what is needed, but from the clamps you can see that it offers many points to clamp the v-blocks securely. I don't want to focus too much on the i-beam, because I have been doing without until recently when I realized that I had a few laying around. Find/make whatever kind of table suits the need. You can make it out of wood, it does not matter as long as it can be made to hold true.

Stability versus Accuracy

The only thing that matters for the setup is that you can rest your hand on any point of the crankshaft and the dial indicator does not move/change. Who cares about a few tenths, but it must remain within at least a half of thou.

The setup shown below in the picture has a surprising stability with zero movement, not even one tenth of a thou. This is important, because it took only four pieces of metal and four clamps to make it happen.

The v-blocks are nothing more than half inch 4" wide flat bars that I cut to 9 inch length and cut a V in a 45 deg angle. If you don't have the tools to cut the V, please do not bother with make-shift attempts using a common grinder wheel unless you have to. Go to your nearest metal shop and get what you need done. I cut mine using a 12 inch metal cutting saw for a square cut, and finished the v cut with a hack saw then made it nice with common grinder.

On a side note, the bar you see on the right is a 2x2x18 true bar. It is true in all faces which is handy to have, but far from necessary for this application. I would have used anything else if I had it in stock. It is the most common tool that I have used in the past 7 years or so for measurements and pictures that I posted on DooTalk.

The point of this post and picture is to show how to obtain stability to reach the best measurements without having to worry about all kinds of craziness with true surfaces. The i-beam is so far out of true that any piece of metal you see on the right or left rocks one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch. The i-beam would be useless without clamps.

The i-beam offers me is an ideal place to set my clamps in any position for the v-blocks. Note the v-blocks in the picture are set under the mag inner bearing and pto outer bearing. This is just one of many placements of the v-blocks that I have using with only four pieces of steel and four clamps. There are no limitation to location nor trueness.

Clamps are your best friend to achieve trueness in your measurements. Before the i-beam, I was able to achieve near same precision using wood and several more clamps. Whatever you do, just make sure it works.

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Precision

First I need to explain that while I may be showing the precision to half a thou, I only care to 1 thou at most. If you read 3.5 thou, this is because the needle was in between 3 and 4. If it shows 3.1 to 3.2, then I consider this 3, and the same with 3.8 and 3.9 that I consider 4. It is important to note that I do not put too much emphasis on precision. So please do not worry if you reach more or less precise. In any case I doubt you will be using a dial indicator that is less precise than my own, so you will quickly see what I mean when taking measurements.

There are two points that I want to stress. The first is to look for values that will help determine where and how the crankshaft is crooked. The second is to focus on how to use those values to straighten the crankshaft.

You may hear the fancy runouts @ half a thou (0.0005"). This is nice to have, but it raises the question as to what these means.

Repeatability

Repeatability is the most important thing from my experience. Unless you do this on a regular basis to the point of understanding the measurements quickly, then more time is needed for the measurements. If you are a regular owner like myself, then take the time to repeat the measurements.

Please do not worry if the measurements showed 3 thou one time, and 4 thou the next. You can get that much discrepancy or more from just turning the crankshaft the opposite direction. You can also get a discrepancy of a few thou if you forget to hold down the v-block securely.

Bearing positions

With 6 bearings used on the 995 SDI crankshaft, or 3 sets of bearings, I name each set as the center bearings for the two in the middle, and the inner bearings and then outer bearings.

Position of the v-blocks and dial indicator

Consider where to position the v-blocks. Polaris says the center bearings and Ski-Doo says the inner bearings. I see no reason for not using a combination to determine what part needs straightening.

The dial indicator can be placed forward and aft of the crankshaft to ensure repeatability.

Crankshaft Bearing Outer Race Trueness

A bearing outer race may become oblong from wear and tear. To eliminate this possibility, take a measurement, then follow by lifting the crankshaft from one of the v-blocks to turn the outer race 180 deg for a second measurement. So far all of my measurements have shown to be the same, so I am assuming this crankshaft with used inner and outer bearings do not have this problem.

Soon I will dig deep deeper with actual values and how I use them to straighten the crankshaft as best as I know how.
 

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Nice setup. Hope you can get it all true. It’s a tough job for sure. I’ve only did it once on a built up single cylinder. That was difficult. I can’t imagine a twin or triple.
 

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It was a huge industrial type equipped with a pressure gauge. The drive gears were awfully difficult to press apart. I seem to remember 20 ton jack would do the job. The crankpins were a lot easier. Ideally heat is used to split apart a compress fit, otherwise the parts wear and they loose interference.

The straightening part in itself is easier than replacing an idler wheel bearing. For the the previous one I did, I reached 2 thou within 15 min plus the setup time. This one I did in 5 min and reached 1 thou. It was fantastic until I set the crankshaft in the cases and found it was really far out at 5 thou. This is the part that I am leading to.
 

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Thanks. Good idea on the heat just before it's pressed apart. Do you use some dry ice on the pins at reassembly time ?
I wonder if the cases are true if the crank goes that far out once it's placed in there. Looking forward to what you discover.
 

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I freeze the pins. I think the cases are ok. This evening I managed to complete the work on the pto side, but I didn't try in the case. Ironically I started at 1 thou and ended at 9 to make it straighter. The setup I used to straighten the pto side was with the v-blocks under the mag center and pto inner. The runout is twice than with a vblock under on the outer. the greater the value makes it easier to measure. Once the pto side is straight, then I move the vblock to the inner bearing and keep the vblock under the pto inner. This gives me greater value to work with.

With the vblocks under both inner bearings, the pto side is sitting at 1 thou which is good. I just hope it doesn't get worse once I correct the mag side that is sitting at 5 thou, and it remains good once it is set in the cases. That reminds me that I need to get a in-case measurement before straightening the mag side.
 

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Discussion Starter · #308 ·
I managed 1 thou deflection for pto. It may look good, but far from when considering the mag side. My dial indicator extension tip for the mag side is not to be found, so this needs to be ordered to move forward.
 

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Discussion Starter · #309 · (Edited)
A step away from runout to get into the AGM battery

The crankshaft runout was doing great until I got wrapped-up with a hydrostatic transmission rebuilt and then somehow lost all of my notes for the runout. Fortunately it is no big deal since I remember what is important, but those are the reasons why I temporarily benched the project. It also serves as a reminder why I normally post all of my work. The fuel to oil ratio is what I care most about, and that is still intact on my hard drive and in this thread.

Until I get back to the crankshaft, I have been working on rejuvenating batteries. It will not be a how to, but rather to show the reasons to needing it!

Prevention is easier than repairs.
 

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Discussion Starter · #310 ·
Rejuvenating a Battery

20210709_204606 - small.jpg

I got this sealed battery for my riding mower cleaned up and working strong again. This one was a little harder than what I had hoped for. I mistakenly left it out in the tractor for the winter and never bothered to dig out the door to the shed to give it charge. It sat long enough that it sulfated with hard crystals and would turn over the engine a little too slow for an easy start. Being a sealed battery I had no choice but to pry-open/break the seal.

I started with giving it a full charge, then a drain with a battery tester and repeat with no change. The electrolyte between cells were relatively even, so this was a good indication that there was no internal shorts and it could be saved. I opted for the distilled water method since lead sulfate crystals dissolve easier in water. I dumped the electrolyte into a bucket for later treatment to neutralize. I then filled the battery with distilled water from the drug store and gave it a high voltage charge. Drain with tester and repeat until the specific gravity stopped rising. Drain the electrolyte which had gotten dark brown and repeat. The last step was to refill the battery with battery acid fluid bought at Napa for $40 which is a solution of 33-38% sulfuric acid in water. It comes in a 5gal bladder wrapped in a cardboard box that is most often used by local greenhouses to give their plants more acidity.

The battery is now back to normal with the tractor having fast cranking speed. Using a Smart Charger you can tell how well a battery is doing by how much time it takes to reach a full charge. For example I gave it a fresh charge this afternoon which took about 30min. I have another battery on charge that has spent several hours on the Absorption charge and still not done. Regardless of the charger, use the healthiest battery as a benchmark.

Safety is a real issue. Even with filling the battery with 100% distilled water, the electrolysis with boiling water is gassing out hydrogen which is a bomb. For this reason I only do this outdoors on the scaffolding platforms that I showed for the hydrostatic transmission. The impregnated lead sulfate crystals are also dissolving in the water, so it is no longer 100% water as it charges. One spark and boom. This solution also needs to be neutralized with baking soda which is dangerous and gives out gases that is not healthy to inhale. Take a deep breath.

I have learned to wear sulfuric acid clothe and wash them in a bucket with a solution of water and baking soda. The clothe won't show any holes until days later especially after a wash, so if it looks fine it is probably not.

Is this worth it? Yes and no. Yes, in the sense that it teaches you the hard lessons of properly maintain batteries and how to detect a bad battery. No, because it is dangerous and a PITA, not to mention that this method cannot be used with the AGM on our sleds. It is definitely a bad project with too many distractions.

My next purchase is a lab grade DC power supply (30V, 5A) for $85 US like the Korad Technology KD3005D that outputs 30V and 5A. With this I can easily regulate the voltage and set a safe limit for the current draw. The high voltage is what breaks down the lead sulfate crystals, but if the battery begins to draw too much current, then the cells will overheat and gas out which depletes the electrolyte. This wasn't a problem with the method that I used for a non AGM, but an AGM is what we need for our sleds. I would also prefer using a longer but simpler method of desulfating without having to break the battery seal and then sealing it back with Cyanoacrylate glue, also known as CA or super glue. You may wonder why not leave it as a conventional capped seal for my tractor. The problem with the sealed covers is that once forced off they don't seal as well as the conventional removable tops. In other words, it is the spill-over from my tractor bouncing around the yard and mowing on inclines that is worrisome.


Korad Technology KD3005D Adjustable 30V 5A DC Power Supply.jpg


Next in line - or probably first - is VDC's BatteryMINDer for their patented desulfation. There are research papers showing that pulsing is not effective to desulfate, and others that show it works but to a degree and eventually degrades the battery. The thing is I am not looking for a charger to rejuvenate/desulfate a battery, but rather a high end maintainer to keep the lead sulfates crystals from forming in the first place. Prevention is much easier than repairs.

I am leaning towards VDC products because I find they show accurate information on their web site. For example, their FAQ does show the use of a dumb charger to bring the voltage above the minimum level required to desulfate. It would be much better to use a lab power supply, but the use of higher voltage from a dumb charger is accurate.

Prevention is easier than repairs.
 

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Discussion Starter · #311 · (Edited)
Rejuvenating a 12Vdc FLA battery

I have a 12V car battery that would not complete its charge cycle with my smart charger due to constant 0.5A charge for 24 hours. After removing the caps and testing the electrolyte I found one cell that was down ~0.050 in SG (Specific Gravity). That was actually good news since such a small current of 0.5A meant that all it would need is an equalizing charge.


Constant Current
An equalizing charge is simply a controlled overcharge to desulfate the cells, hence a constant current. This is a FLA (Flooded Lead Acid) battery with caps which makes the maintenance easy because I can easily check the level of electrolyte to ensure the level is above the plates. For this phase I plugged my dumb charger to get the 15.6-15.9Vdc to equalize/desulfate (* This was for a FLA). Note that the process for the Yuasa AGM battery in our sleds is the same, but requires much greater care to ensure the electrolyte does not boil and escape through the vent as there is no way to check the fluid level on an AGM. This is done on an AGM by keeping a close eye on the current draw (Amp) and temperature of the cells. The last phase of recovery which I will mention later is to cycle the battery with reasonable discharge and return to a 100% SOC. This process continues to desulfate the battery during each recharge.

After several hours on an equalizing charge the SG of the low cell had recovered about half or ~0.025 under the strongest cell. After 6+ hours rest the OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) was 12.85Vdc which was promissing. OCV just means testing the battery voltage with no load which is how everyone tests their battery voltage.

The next evening (last evening) I gave it another equalizing charge for about 6 hours and let the battery rest overnight. This morning I tested the OCV @ 12.30Vdc and my face dropped in disbelief. Had I killed the battery? After work I measured it again @ 12.87Vdc! What a relief. It took me the following evening of testing to figure out the reason for the discrepancy, which was poor connection of the test leads. This becomes obvious with repeated testing and seeing readings from one to the next that do not jive.

Next was a test with my smart charger which took a minute to reach 90% charge @ 14.8Vdc. After another minute it determined the abortion charge was completed from too low current draw @ 14.8Vdc.

This is when it begins its testing/equalizing phase before reaching the Maintenance phase. It does this by cutting current for the time needed for the voltage to drop from 14.8Vdc down to 13.5 Vdc, then giving another charge @ 14.8Vdc for 15-30 seconds and repeats the process until it is happy. In this case it took one and one half hour to complete before entering the Maintenance phase which again repeats an on/off cycle charge. The key is the voltage and repeated cycling. The same can be done with AGM.

Load Test @ 125A
Within seconds of disconnecting the battery charger I performed the CCA test with a convential 125A heated element. It was a pass ending @ 11.0Vdc and an OCV of 12.76Vdc which was awesome. The test lasts around 10 seconds.

10min later I gave it another CCA test with another pass, but this time @ 11.3Vdc which was even higher then the first, and it followed by a higher OCV of 12.76Vdc!

Consecutive load tests with 10-30min rest in between
  • First number is the Vdc that it ended the 125A load test.
  • Second number is the OCV 10-30min following the load test.
  • The OCV immediately after a load test is considerably lower.
  • Example, a 12.76Vdc OCV shows ~12.59Vdc a couple of seconds after the load test.
  • This is normal recovery behavior since the load test does drop the voltage down to 11.x Vdc.


#1 = 11.0Vdc followed by 12.76Vdc OCV
#2 = 11.3Vdc followed by 12.76Vdc OCV
#3 = 11.4Vdc followed by 12.76Vdc OCV
#4 = 11.3Vdc followed by 12.78Vdc OCV
#5 = 11.3Vdc followed by 12.79Vdc OCV
#6 = 11.3Vdc followed by 12.80Vdc OCV
#7 = 11.2Vdc followed by 12.79Vdc OCV
#8 = 11.2Vdc followed by 12.76Vdc OCV
#9 = 11.2Vdc followed by 12.74Vdc OCV
10 = 11.1Vdc followed by ??.??Vdc OCV


Is it fully rejuvenated???
I am not convinced this battery is rejuvenated to it maximum capacity, whatever that is for an old battery, but it is getting close. The difference in SG is ~0.025 between the strongest and weakest cell. I suspect that it can get closer, but this will require cycling of the battery through medium but extended loads. For this car battery I will using consecutive high load tests @ 125A.

How to know if a battery recoverable?
That is the key question and it can be figured out through charging. As a rule of thumb, a healthy battery that has been stored with a 100% SOC (State Of Charge) for a period of several months, it can be rejuvenated to an acceptable level. Take for example a Yuasa AGM YTX20HL that is rated 310 CCA when new. Even if it recovers to 90% @ 280CCA, it still provides 10CCA more than a new YTX20L that is too often sold as a replacement for sleds.

Self-Discharge during storage
I once read on DooTalk the self-discharge rate of AGM batteries. The data given simply did not jive with what I had tested with a new Yuasa YTX20L that I had bought for a self-discharge test over a 12 month period. The reason for the discrepancy is imo, the gentlemen was using rates for AGM batteries that do not apply to these high CCA Powersport batteries which also holds for cars and trucks. A true Deep Cycle Battery will do better to recover from self-discharge, but the same rules apply to all FLA and VRLA (AGM).

Deficit cycling
This is when a the battery is not fully charged prior to its next use. Ideally our sleds are run long enough to reach a 100% SOC and the next time we go for a ride the cycle repeats. If it stored for a month at 100% SOC, then it suffers from Self-Discharge which is normal and recoverable with a fresh charge. But if it is stored at say 90% SOC, then this will damage the battery. So if the sled is going to be stored for a period due to the snow having melted or taking a vacation on the beach, then it should be charged to 100% SOC.

Cycling the battery for a full recovery
As mentioned with the example above to rejuvenate a FLA or VRLA (AGM), cycling the battery will continue to recovery phase as it will remove small amounts of accumulated sulfation each time it recharges. There is a price to pay for each recovery, but the return to a healthy battery far outweigh the cost.

Longevity of Powersport batteries
The best way to know about longevity is to pay attention to forums like DooTalk and locals who have been able to keep their batteries for 7+ years. Granted they are not necessarily being tested at -4F (-20C) or -22F (-30C), but they do exist and I have seen them. For 7-10 years results, the story from the owners was always the same with a focus on maintenance. This was for the most part 100% SOC during storage and repeated charging or a battery maintainer.

Battery life is accumulative
A powersport battery is used so little that there is negligeable accumulative wear compared to a daily car or battery bank. For a powersport battery in sleds, it is all about maintenance during storage.

Cycle Life versus Calendar Life
Out of nearly 100% of YouTube videos, cycle life is the only one mentioned. That is unfortunate since a battery also degrades over time, hence calendar life. With Powersport batteries, the main issue is storage,

Do your own poll
Look carefully at your cars and trucks to see how long those batteries lasted. If it was a older but daily runner and NEVER had a drain from inadvertently leaving the lights on, then it likely lasted 7+ years. Newer cars in the last decade don't have an issue with lights being left on by mistake, but many do have a constant current from whatever loads. So if left for even a week without riding the car, then the battery depleats and sulfates, so they don't count unless they are daily driven without exception. Leaving such a car/truck to discharge the battery while on a two week beach vacation does not count for 7+ year service life.

It is worth doing the work?
Yes! While writing this post I have reached 6 consecutive 125A load tests with an OCV that keeps rising!

Where to find the sources?
Before joining DooTalk I used to find most of my good references with web pages. Those were the ones that had references to other web sites. After 9 years on DooTalk it has gotten a lot easier to find the 1 of 100 YouTube videos that holds good references, and also healthy discussions. Knurlgnar24 has been one of those few good YouTubers. I first saw his work with rejuvenating AGM Deep Cycle Batteries on a web page maybe 15 years ago. Today I no longer need to reference to his videos because he has since given adequate references and I have done the work. For example the 52 page Rolls Battery User manual.

SME (Subject Matter Experts)
I have gone through White Papers to look into detailed aspects of batteries, but for all intent and purpose the Battery User Manuals from reputable manufacturers such as Rolls (click the link) have served me better. In my career I have participated in writing White Papers which is how I know they are written by people in the field who know their stuff from hard experience. I am not an SME for batteries, but I do rely on SME to get me through understanding what I need to know. For this reason I have condensed everything that I need to know about batteries in these last couple of posts. If I need to go through this again in 6 months or 6 years, I will have this as reference. I will also have Compression Tests with over 360 compression strokes on a single battery charge as a reference. It is all nice to read such a post on a public forum, but I am hopeful that you make your own experiences as they are priceless.

Rolls Battery User Guide
PDF Page 35
Deep cycle batteries will perform best when maintained at a full charge.
By holding at a 100% SOC this will extend the overall life of the battery bank.
For float applications such as backup systems, it is important to discharge and
charge the battery bank periodically to exercise the battery bank as this will
prevent stratification and sulfation buildup.
Backup systems are often sized to meet the load

Note the above is for Deep Cell Batteries, but that's not what is important. Powersport batteries during the season of use do get a regular discharge/charge cycles which exercise the battery. The same as a daily driver car/truck. A daily driver is near ideal use for its intended purpose. It gets a minimal discharge through engine cranking, and it repeatedly works the battery to keep its 100% SOC without any significant discharge.
 

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Discussion Starter · #312 · (Edited)
Recharge ASAP to 100% SOC

I have since reached 9 load tests @ 125A with the lowest being 11.2Vdc. Since I do enjoy superlatives when well used, this is far better than I had expected. Remember the 12.3Vdc that I measured in the morning and had me worried? I can now say with confidence that the low reading was a result of taking the measurements, and not with the equalization which had me worried.

As I was writing this post I want to perform a 10th load test, but the OCV is 12.69Vdc and still climbing. I don't know how much of a difference it makes to wait for the OCV to reach its peak, but I ain't writing an SAE paper nor taking the risk to deviate from the test parameters that I used for this battery. In hindsight, I should have recorded the voltage drop for the record 360+ compression strokes on a single battery charge with an old/used OEM Honda battery 7.5" high x 4.75" wide and 9" long. This is a tiny little battery! It has led me to re-adjust my reference point to size, strength and longevity.

The battery currently being tested is a conventional FLA from Napa @ 550CCA with non sealed/glued caps. It has since reached 12.74Vdc from 12.69Vdc, but I will wait another 10min to look for an increase before doing the final #10 load test.... 12.74Vdc is the highest that it reached, so I went with #10 load test.

#10 = 11.2Vdc

At this point I figured to immediately follow the last #10 test with the highest CCA that my charger would allow @ 999CCA. The result was 11.1Vdc which was indicated as a weak battery.

Battery Maintenance
This is going to be a challenge as I do not have a battery maintainer other than a smart charger. This means that I will need to get myself a new toy. I do not like the idea of a battery on a permanent charge, but I was given the idea on DooTalk to use a timer.
 

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Charles, as you may have figured out by now, I like to be thorough in my maintenance, prep, and other things, but I also like to be practical, frugal, and efficient when I can, but that doesn't always work out like I envision it. For battery maintenance, I have owned 2 original type Battery Tenders over about the last 18 years or so. I may have even had one before that, but it slips my mind and I don't have time to dig through 30+ year old receipts, as I'm sure I would still have it. The Battery Tenders have a 10 year warranty and the one I have now is going on 14 years or so. It is plugged in 24/7, as was my last one, and I rotate it between (currently) a car, boat, two motorcycles, and a snowmobile, usually one vehicle per day or so. It used to be put on a tractor, lawn tractor and other various vehicles, depending what I had around at the time. I have been happy with this smart charger keeping my batteries where they need to be with this type of rotation. Is it the best thing to do? I don't know, but it works for me and I'll stick with it. It may be time for a new unit as I've noticed some quirks lately indicating incorrect polarity when I hook it up. What more could you ask for a charger this old in constant use? My 2 cents.
 

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Discussion Starter · #314 ·
Thank for your experience Tony. Keeping your batteries on a float charge is certainly the way to go. I do believe the batteries also need to be cycled periodically unless there is a way to keep them from desulfating during the float charge. From the information provided by VCD Electronics (BatteryMinder), it applies a series of electrical pulses to break down the lead sulfate crystals. There are several patents for this and one of them does fit, but I will contact VCD during opening hours to see if they can give me the patent number.

What is drawing me to a BatteryMinder is that they focus on the preventive aspect to address sulfation, and their quality literature.

This battery held a surprisingly high 12.95Vdc for a day. This was 2 days ago and today it has already begun to self discharge with a drop to 12.91Vdc. There will be a point when it begins to stabilize and keep a voltage for longer periods, but without repeated charging every few days or a maintainer, it will loose the strength that it gained from all the work done to rejuvenate it. This leads to a second problem of the byproduct from repeated desulfation that keeps accumulated at the bottom of the cells. Batteries don't necessarily have much room at the bottom for any significant amount before it shorts out the battery. I have a couple of old Yuasa AGM batteries for sleds that I will eventually open up to see how much room there is. I also have a good candidate for an autopsy with a with FLA battery that shorted out after leaving the headlights on for a full day and could never bring back to life due to a shorted cell that draws way too much current.

For me it isn't about digging too deep, but far enough for a sound and practical understanding. The best example I can give is having to listen to my smart charger that repeatedly cycles the test phase to determine when the absorption charge is complete before entering its Maintenance mode. This is annoying to no end until it becomes apparent that this phase serves to equalize the cells.

Avoid Battery Sulfation
Temperature Compensation

FAQ

Q: What do I do if my battery's charge is under the 3 volts required for the 12248, 24041 and 36271 or 10.5 volts required for the 12117, 12118 to work properly?
A: If a battery has low voltage from having not been maintained as opposed to a physical problem such as a shorted cell, it can be temporarily hooked up to a "dumb" charger to bring the voltage above the minimum level.

Q: Explain Your Method for Removing Sulfate from Batteries (Desulfation).
A: YOur pulses are set to resonate the sulfate crystals allowing them to breakup at the molecular level thus un-bonding the components of the crystals made up primarily of sulfuric acid and lead chemically described as pbSO4. By using this technique none of the main ingredients of the former crystals find their way to the bottom of the cell that would eventually lead to its shorting out. It also does not raise the internal temperature. Our instructions on being sure you have a "good candidate" battery for the best possible long term result, are very important to be followed. Lastly, don't expect to see an appreciable change in less than 72 hours (consecutive or continuous hours and it must be a DIGITAL volt-meter [not analog])."
 
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